Blue-and-white (青花 Qing Hua)Procelain
"Blue and white wares" designate white pottery and porcelain decorated under the glaze with a blue pigment, generally cobalt oxide. The decoration is commonly applied by hand, by stencilling or by transfer-printing, though other methods of application have also been used.
Famille-Rose (粉彩 Fen Cai)Porcelain
Famille rose is the group of Chinese porcelain wares characterized by decoration painted in opaque overglaze rose colors, often involving shades of pink and carmine. These colors were known to the Chinese as yangcai (foreign colors”) because they were first introduced from Europe (around 1685). The enamel paint used was originally the type of glaze applied to metal wares, such as cloisonné, and was adapted to porcelain after it entered China.
Jingdezhen, "The porcelain centre of the world."
As the world-famed ceramic capital, Jingdezhen City has a long history of ceramics making and a rich cultural heritage. In accordance with the historical records, “Xinping (as the city was known as then) began to make pottery in Han Dynasty”. It is evident that pottery was first made in Jingdezhen in Han Dynasty. In the first year in Jingde Reign of Song Dynasty (1004), the royal court decreed the city made porcelain wares for imperial use with the wording “Made during the Jingde Reign” printed on the bottom of every piece. Hence the city got its name “Jingdezhen”. From Yuan Dynasty to Ming and Qing Dynasty, emperors sent their officials to Jingdezhen to supervise the manufacture of royal porcelain. They set up the Porcelain Office and built the royal kiln, which produced many wonderful ceramic articles.

The porcelain made in Jingdezhen enjoys the praise of "as white as jade, as thin as paper, as sound as a bell, as bright as a mirror" .Guo Moruo (the late famous historian and scholar) highly praised the brilliant ceramic history and culture in Jingdezhen and the ceramics connected the Jingdezhen to the world closely with the poem that "China is well known by the porcelain, the famous porcelains are made in this city."

Among them were those particularly famous for the four classic decorations: blue and white, famille rose,  color glaze,contrasted colors,Colour enamels...
contrasted colors (斗彩 dou cai) Porcelain
Doucai is a variety of decorative porcelain formed by the combination of underglaze blue-and-white and overglaze decoration. . As the underglaze blue-and-white and the overglaze decoration seem to contend for beauty, it is called "Doucai" (literally, compete for color).The firing of doucai porcelain dates back to the Chenghua Period of the Ming Dynasty, which is most well-known for its doucai. Chenghua doucai porcelain features quiet and elegant blue-and-white, bright and smooth white glaze, soft color, as well as white and fine base. It is a rare and fine variety of porcelain.
LongQuan Celadon
Longquan celadon refers to Chinese celadon produced in Longquan kilns which were largely located in Lishui prefecture in southwestern Zhejiang Province. With those in other prefectures the total of discovered kiln sites is over two hundred, making the Longquan celadon production area one of the largest historical ceramic centers in all of China.

Longquan celadon use of local high-quality porcelain clay, soil Zijin, quartz chinaware and other raw materials, forming the pile after the traditional, carved, front, engrave, engraved, sticky, zoned skills such as hand-made of semi-finished products, and then glazing, at about 1300 ℃ high temperature to restore the atmosphere of heavy firing, glaze the high iron was reduced to low iron, so a dark green enamel.

Longquan celadon can be classified by product characteristics and Di Ge ware celadon celadon kiln. Ge ware celadon hard tires thin glaze layer full, there is Cui-Qing glaze, powder blue, gray blue, light Green and so on, to one of Green powder for You. The use of fetal, glaze expansion coefficient between the two different high temperature firing of the glaze after cooling the natural cracks and beautiful shapes of the lines as a means of decoration, there is "gold wire" of the name. Births for the black, at the end of the foot exposed fetus, fetal foot such as iron, I thin glaze browser Micro-exposed fetal Department and the Pan-purple, known as the "Purple iron foot", it is glazed piece matched the profile background, looks antique, dignified and elegant . Brother celadon kiln fetal thick white glaze, the glaze layer plump, green glaze, soft luster. Umeko have blue, powder blue, white beans on the Green, Green, such as shells of different colors to better Umeko Green. Noodles used porcelain decorative bas-relief methods, and its ridge white marks Micro-exposed Department hereinafter referred to as "the tendons," feet were red as "Cinnabar adequate", it's glazed with crystal green background, vigorous tall and straight,Simple and honest and simple dignified, as the " Celadon Flower. "

Jun Yao (Jun kiln) Procelain

The Jun kilns were based in Henan Province and had locations throughout its Yu County. As of today, over 100 kiln sites have been discovered. Some of which specially produced porcelain ware for the imperial courts, with a history that dated back to the Tang Dynasty; its most flourishing period was during the Song Dynasty. the unique feature of Jun porcelain lied with its special turbid glaze, which contained low concentrates of copper oxide. If we consider iron oxide the coloring agents for celadon and black porcelain, then Jun porcelain gained its wonderful hues from copper oxide. Copper turns green in oxidation fire and red instead in reduction atmosphere. Due to the small traces of copper oxide in Jun porcelain glaze, its color was often green infused with violet, as if the rosy clouds during sunset. Even the blue contained in Jun porcelain was different from the usual celadon; it was a blue with a milky tone. The successful creation of Jun porcelain was a great achievement by the craftsmen of the song Dynasty. its mysterious and unpredictable colors have gained the love of the people during its time, making the Jun kilns one of the most famous around.

By using copper oxides as the pigment, the Jun kilns successfully produced copper-red glaze in a reduction fire. This was a breakthrough in the technology of ceramics. Adding copper oxide as coloring agent was a rather difficult task, as the chemical components in the basic glaze, the temperature and atmosphere were all very sensitive factors. Even the smallest bit of deviation from the requirements would have resulted in an undesirable shade of red. Another distinguishing feature of Jun porcelain glaze would be the pattern referred to as “earthworm crawling in the mud” 蚯蚓走泥纹. It appeared as if the trails left in the soil by earthworms. This was a result of the glaze being particularly thick in Jun ware. When in the process of baking, under low temperature, the glaze began to chap. When the temperature was raised, glaze that had not congealed flowed back into the crackled creases. Just as the crackle glaze, this defect in firing technology turned into a kind of rich and unique decorative language. There is a saying that no two pieces of Jun porcelain are identical, which means that even porcelain born of the same kiln are somewhat different, as most of the coloring is done through a natural process; people have little control over the glaze color. However, this type of natural formation was the highest ideal in aesthetics at the time.
Jun porcelain vessels such as flower pots, cauldrons, writing-brush washbasins and more; all modeled after ancient bronze vessels used for rituals. Thus Jun porcelain appeared detail. There were similarities between Jun porcelain and those of the Imperial, Ru and other kilns of the same time period, because they were all intended for serving the courts. Flowers and floral patterns were the fashionable form of decoration for porcelain at this time. However, Jun porcelain used not patterned decorations but the vessels themselves came in the shapes of flowers. Commonly seen were toilet cases, flowerpots, flat bowls and writing-brush washbasins in the shape of Chinese crabapple flowers; flowerpots and pot bases in the shape of lotuses; as well as pot bases made to resemble sunflowers. It was a truly unique feature of the Jun Kilns.

Ru Yao (Ru Kiln) Procelain

Ru Kiln, one called "Head of All Kilns on the Earth" in Chinese porcelain history as one of the five famous kilns ("Ru, Guan, Jun, Ge & Ding Kilns") in Song Dynasty, gets the name of "Ru" Since it is located in Ruzhou.

This kiln was specially picked out to produce porcelain for the court in Song Dynasty, so its products were called "RU Palace Porcelain" i.e. "Ru Porcelain" put simply. Whose soft quantity, delicate workmanship, unique color and colorful penetrations give you delightful enjoyment and pleasure, Quite often resulting in such characteristic effects of "Blue like the sky, gentle like the gem, fine like cicada' s wings, shining like the stars and smooth like the glaze". Ru Kiln technique survived various wars and anarchical periods in history with much treasured pieces of porcelain spread all over the world in museums of Peking, Taipei, Britain, Japan, etc; since it is the world' s rare treasure of mankind.Ru porcelain was exclusively for imperial use. It was produced on a small scale within a twenty-year period, and artisans conversant in its production techniques were few. There are believed to be just 60 pieces of Ru porcelain extant. Of all ancient Chinese ceramics, those made in the Ru kilns are the most precious, mainly because they are so rare. A mere fragment of Ru kiln porcelain sells for RMB 1,000 (about US $122).The Imperial Ru Kilns of the Northern Song Dynasty were in Ruzhou (present-day Linru County, Henan Province) -- for centuries a main producer of celadon. Archaeological findings indicate that porcelain production in Ruzhou was technologically advanced during the Tang Dynasty, but it was actually from 1086 to 1106, when Ru kilns were confined to imperial use, that Ru ceramics reached their zenith. Emperor Huizong personally oversaw the selection of craftsmen and materials involved in porcelain production. As his stress was on aesthetics rather than practicality. Ru kiln ceramics were small and exquisitely fashioned, seldom exceeding 20 centimeters in height. They were stationery or purely decorative items, such as brush washers, incense burners and vases. Emperor Huizong also had a passion for bronze ware, and was the first to produce porcelain whose shape imitated bronze.

The texture of Ru porcelain bases is fine and in an ash gray shade with a glaze that covers the entire body. When fired, each piece was placed on a rack whose nails left distinctive spur marks the size of sesame seeds on each base. The bodies of Ru porcelains are slender and symmetrical with an extremely hard, finely crackled sky blue, aquamarine or turquoise glaze.
Ru Kilns stopped production after the Jin invasion. Some artisans fled to the south, but owing to a lack of raw materials and different climatic conditions, were unable to produce porcelains of the same quality as those of Ruzhou.
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Ding Yao (Ding kiln) Procelain

Product Characteristics: burning white china mainly, fine porcelain, quality thin with bright, glaze color moist like jade.  

Ding Kiln (dìng yáo 定窑)Ding kiln is located in the Quyang county (qǔ yáng xiàn 曲阳县),Hebei Province (hé běi shěng 河北省), which is called Dingzhou (dìngzhōu 定州) in the Song Dynasty (sòng cháo 宋朝)(960—1276). It wasbuilt in the Tang Dynasty (táng cháo 唐朝)(618—907).
The Ding Kiln was known for its white porcelains. It used durablewhite clay (gāo lǐng tǔ 高岭土) as the roughcast (pī 坯), covered bywhite glaze (bái yòu 白釉). In the early Song Dynasty, thedecoration patterns were relatively simple, by the end of theNorthern Song Dynasty the paintings were much more complicated. Some of the Ding porcelains were imperial contributions to the court.On the other hand, the Ding aesthetic relied more on its elegantshape than ostentatious decoration; designs were understated, eitherincised or stamped into the clay prior to glazing. Due to the waythe dishes were stacked in the kiln, the edged remained unglazed,and had to be rimmed in metal such as gold or silver when used astableware.
Five Famous Kilns in the Song Dynasty
China has a long history in porcelain, which developed from pottery making. The ceramic history can be traced back to the Neolithic age. Along with the development of ceramics,in the early period of the Shang dynasty (1783-1134 BC), the original green porcelain, or celadon, appeared.
The Song Dynasty (960-1279) was a boom period following the Han and the Tang dynasties, when porcelain kilns were spread in the whole country, with different strong local flavors.


The "Five Famous Kilns", including the Guan Kiln, Ru Kiln, Ge Kiln, Ding Kiln and Jun Kiln, are most famous.